- The nanoscience are interested in the study of matter and artificial structures to this scale.
- The nanotechnology takes care about conception, manufacturing and production of industrial or medical systems to this scale.
In many science fiction stories, the N.S.T. take the shape of miniaturised robots conceived for medical treatments, increase of mental and physical abilities, espionage, murder, targeted repairs, polymorphic materials…
Some nanobots can even evolve, become intelligent (individually or in groups) and built civilisations.
- The Fantastic Voyage, by Isaac Asimov
- The TV series Jake 2.0
- The second generation Réplicators in Stargate SG-1
- The Borg assimilation nanites in Star Trek
- The Iron Man armour in Avengers: Endgame